Age-related Macular

What is AMD?

Macular degeneration is an eye condition closely related to ageing and is the main cause of central vision loss.

The macula is a small central portion of the retina, an area of light-sensing nerve tissue whose main function is to control central vision, colour and fine details. When the macula is worn down areas of the central vision field lose sharpness.


  • Dry or atrophic MD: Dry degeneration causes the thinning and atrophy of the macula which leads to variable vision loss. This is the most frequent type of macular degeneration characterised by a slow and progressive evolution that causes the gradual loss of central vision in affected patients.
  • Wet or exudative MD: Blood vessels growing from underneath the macula leak blood and fluids into the retina. Leakage eventually forms a scar that leads to faster vision loss than in dry MD.

Symptoms of AMD

AMD causes progressive loss of central vision which implies difficulties for performing precision tasks such as reading, writing, driving or sewing.

Straight lines appear distorted

Lines appear distorted and blind spots (scotomas) may be perceived in the central area of the field of vision.

Unilateral symptoms

In its initial phase this condition may develop unilaterally (only in one eye) although it eventually affects both eyes. This means that patients might not be aware of vision loss unless they accidentally cover the healthy eye and perceive distorted lines with the other.


Patients may conduct an indicative self-test to detect possible alterations of the central part of the retina. Please follow the following steps to test your sight:

  • Do not remove your eyeglasses or contact lenses if you wear them regularly
  • Click on the Amsler Grid to zoom in.
  • Place the chart at a distance from which you can clearly distinguish the grid lines
  • Cover one of your eyes and fix your gaze on the central dot
  • Test each eye separately
  • If you see any distortion of the lines or any blurry areas contact your eye doctor as soon as possible

This test might not be useful in the initial stage of AMD

Risk factors



Family history of AMD

High cholesterol levels


AMD is a condition related to both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors account for nearly 70% of patients predisposition to AMD.

Recent systems and procedures based on advanced technology allow tests that include patients’ genetic information to determine the risk of AMD at different ages. Such tests make possible the development of control programmes for early diagnosis to slow the progress of macular degeneration.


Currently there is no cure for macular degeneration but research has made possible the development of medications that help slow the progress of the disease and treat its complications.

Patients’ habits must be taken into account since factors like smoking, unhealthy eating habits and obesity significantly increase the risk of macular degeneration.

Periodical examinations are also necessary in order to detect early symptoms, address MD and slow its advance.

The main treatment is the implantation of intraocular lenses.

Intraocular lenses for AMD

The option of implanting specially designed intraocular lenses may be considered for patients affected by AMD that need cataract surgery. The implants allow patients to see through a healthy retina by focusing on an area outside the macula.

Low vision aids

Additional vision aids with special lenses or electronic systems that enlarge images are available to improve vision in affected patients. Training of peripheral vision may also be used in such cases.


The expertise of our medical team combined with the use of state-of-the-art technology guarantee the best results for our patients.

About us

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At CLÍNICA RAHHAL we want treatment to be affordable for our patients.

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Select any of the following FAQs from our patients and check the answers. If your doubts are not solved please use the contact form below to get in touch with us.

Can young people suffer from Macular Degeneration?

Age-related macular degeneration is a process associated with retinal ageing. However, other causes might lead to macular pathologies in young patients with similar consequences.

I have a family history of AMD. What can I do to prevent it?

AMD has a significant genetic component, therefore an adequate preventive approach is essential. No treatment or method can be 100% effective in terms of prevention, but if you quit smoking and have a healthy diet risk factors can be controlled.

Do intravitreal injections always help?

No. Intravitreal injections used for macular degeneration seek to inhibit neovascularization (the formation of blood vessels that leak excess fluid into the retina). In cases where there is no neovascularization and no excess fluid, injections are ineffective.

Is treatment with intravitreal injections permanent?

Treatment with intravitreal injections must be minimal to keep MD at bay. Periodicity depends on patients: treatment begins with a monthly frequency spacing the doses to reach an optimal regularity for each case, then doctors will debate whether to discontinue the treatment and focus on an individual approach for each case. The fact is that as long as neovascularization continues and the treatment improves the patient’s vision, injections must continue.

Can AMD be cured?

Certain aspects of the disease can be contained by controlling risks factors and treating possible complications, but there is no effective and definitive cure for AMD.

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